Laen kuni 10000; vevid laen

It the initial sibUaat hae a auid mute after ll, the Qnal a may be dmpped altogether - and by Boma anthoTlUea li Teqnlred to be *o dropped. avoidance more and more of what was, even if lingering in use, inconsistent with his teachings, and also, in the constant reproduction of texts, to the grad- ual effacement of whatever they might contain 'that was unapproved. The orguia ot Dttennce aie dexulbeil u bslng la the poeitlon of the mate-aerlee to which eieb splruit belongs reipedively, but uneloBed, oi unclosed in tbe middle. Thai, in word-oomposilion, the ratio of the caies of eoaleaoed vowels to thoae of hiatne are in RT. In the Teda, the flnal vowel of a word - genenlly a, mach less often i and a - is In a large nnmber of cases prolonged. v&rk from yv^i, avart from Vvft, AmSit from ymfi, auh&rt from anb&rd. Oplniona ue divided aa to what thla ahonld have been. act.: thus, k^rdhl, k^uhl, k^ldhl, qrudhl, ffQadm, qrnnhl, didlhl, Jahl. Excepting the first, those look like cases of disalmilatloni yet examples of the combination bbh are not very rare in the older language ; that, kaknbbbyftm, triift^bbhla, kakabbhai^^^ anugt^b bhi. + Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find additional materials through Google Book Search. Tbe f here alee it only formal, intended to mark the roots as liable to e taken up the subject of inflectloii, under the two heads of deelenaloii and conjugation; and an aotount of the elasses of unimfleeted words will follow. The permitted occurrence of consonants at the end of a word is quite narrowly restricted. And, on the other hand, abbreyiation of cer- tain other groups is allowed, and found often practised in the manuBctipts. Google This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project to make the world's books discoverable online. The construction of the verb ia shared, of course, by its par- ticiples and iDfinitives; but also, in Sanskrit, by a number of other derivatives, having a more or less participial or infiaitivaJ character, and even Bometimes by nouns and adjectives. Digitizecy Google INTRODUCTION. The eterdte of the altering Inflnence can be seen to depend in part npon the closeness or fteqaency of the compound, or its integration hy being made the base of a deriTstlTe. In geneial, only one consonant, of whatever kind, is allowed to stand at the end of a word; if two or more would etymologically occur there, the last is dropped, and ^ain the last, and so on, till only one remains. Tm£ aooordance ia iaflMtion of substantire and adjective stems is so complete that the tiro oaanot be separated in tieatmeot from one another. It is, then, dental, u it ie clasBed by all tlie Hinda aDtborities. After some consideration, and consultation with friends, I accepted the task, and have since deroted to it what time conld he spared from regular dntiea, after the satisfaction of engagements earlier formed. Examples of c remitining unchanged in inflection are; noy&te, rirlord, v&d, mumuom&be. Such matter comes ioy Google zviit Introduction. Putlclss: namely, Athft, kAhtL, ev£, uta, ghi, b&. And wheneveT it is nsable vitb a verb in two different const ractions, the verb may take two accasative:, one in each constraction: and such combiDatlons aie qaite frequent in Sanskrit. Final ^ r, in general, shows the same form which n B would show under the same conditions. pltryinai Bvargdna, dnrga^i, usr&rftm^e, tryaflgagam. Hence they ate not to be read aa written, but with constantly tecnrring reversal of the pioceuea of vowel-combination which they have been made artiflciilly to undeigo. Other aporadlc cases will be noticed nnder the different declensions. Ststeh of Sounds; Fbohdmoiatiok. Its differences &om the latter the following treatise endeavors to show in detail. ThDs, the dative U aaed with - a. ThDS, ivikfata, vek^y^mi; vk^ti, vl^\&, dlde^tu; dldl^^bi, ▼i^bbis. The nominative is the case of the subject of the sentence, and of any vord qualifying the sub- ject, whether attrihatively, in appositioo, or as predicate. Thus, ^; Indiah; ^ t«; ^ff'^i^ kari^yiai; r^fcf^lHI tuviJMl o. Of linguistic history there is n^t to nothing Digitizecy Google ItlTSOODOnON. Preface v iNTBODncnoB zi I. b> The Dom., aec, and tdc. ioy Google eg COKBINATIOMS OF FINAL H. At any rate, both manuscripts and printed texts in general make no account of them. In the mannscrlpts it is very frequently made, bat not nnlformly. The nnmeial QOf lix U perbapa better to be Tegarded aa fakf, vlth tta kf treated aa ^ according to tba accepted inle. Thna, T&yftTS etlut or vSyBTK^ Btha; ontaBtanbu or oBtu^tan&m. A few prepositions are aecompaDied by the accusative. What part, on the other hand, the notice of differ- Digitizecy Google iMTSODnonoH. Rules of Vowel Combination. No palatal is allowed as final. Prolongations of flnal a, and before v, ate most frequent; but cases ate fnnnd of every variety. One oi two special applications of the ablative constructlan are to be noticed: a. Of the sibilants, none may stand unaltered at the end of a word.

cesBors; and a traditional method was thos eBtabliBhed whicfa has been perhaps Bomewhat too closely adhered to, at the ezpeuse of clearness and of proportion, as well as of scien- tific truth. Thus, either tAd nAmas or tAn nAmaa, vig me or vafi me, bAi} mi^hij" or bi-tf mabin, tri^t^b n&nAm or trii^fom a&nAm. It is avoided, according to the circumstances of the case, either by fusion of the two oonounent sounds into one, by the reduction of oae of them to a semivowel, or by development of a semi- vowel between them. Thus, bandhQ fta&te imjtu; git^ irobatam. But a nOD-nasal mate, if radical and not anffixal. It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. U nnceTtain and incanilatent Id Iti choice between the one and the olheij. ctiim^lH "^^I^HllJ^ STOTMIW dartblifKm tarlibfarim. has the com- pound vT^a^aqva. By European scholars it is variously pronounced - more often, perhaps, as s than as «A. D,j,i,., Google SSO- ] rv. Between final t ■°^ Initial b, the iasenlon of a t ie permitted - or, accordlug to some anthoiitlee, reqotiedi thns, ^&% aab&sr&l; or tt&^t Bob&Brll^. only one In Ave; in sentenoe-comblnatlon, the ctsea ot ooaleacence are la both RV. It is, then, made irith the flat of the tongve against the forward part of the palatal arch - that is to say, it is the usual and normal sA-sound. of other lesa claaaidable oaaea: aa dyftof pit^ trig pQtvlt. only one in twelve, in AT. Mo general igitement has been reached among Bcbolars as to the number and order of Sanskrit declensions. It is a comparatively recent member of tbe alphabetic system; the other euphonic changes of final ■ and r have not passed through viaarga as an intermediate stage. A partly dramatic character belongs also to the iable, in which animals ate represented as acting and speaking. Accordingly, my attention has not been directed toward a profonoder stndy of the grammatieal science of the Hinda schools: their teachings I hare been contented to take as already reported to Western learners in the existing Western grammars. hii inttSm iaatead ot inddbsm &am yidb. It is not the place here to describe the means by which, in addition to the religious care of the sectaries, this accuracy was secured: forms of texts, lists of peculiarities and treatises upon them, and so on. Quantify of sounds and syllables. What are the limits of tbo artificiality of this process is not yet known. haa the exceptions &;trinKm and rfiftrin&m. usually has aA instead of fiA. There are one or two escepUooB to these rnleB: B. When a dental mute comes in contact ^vith a lingual or palatal mute or sibilant, the dental is usually assimilated, becoming lingual or palatal respe'stively. They, too, contain some mantra or hymn-material, not found to occur elsewhere. The eecoiid of Iheae methode la the one oftenoat followed in printed texts. Eiamplea ue namaakara, vftoaspatl, Syu^Sma, payaakalpa. The drama is a still more noteworthy and important branch. TbuB, from ynj: iyukthlla, Ayukta, yunkti, yukti, yoktra, yokqyjml, yuk^u; yiifigrtht, AyugdhTam, yugbhia. A doable r is nowbece admitted: if snch wonid occur, eitlier by retention of an ori^al r or b^ conversion of ■ to r, one r is omitted, and tbe preceding vowel, If siiort, is made long by oompen- ■ation. Tahad minna reisile? Reisilaen tuleb appi. This sibilant is by all the native authoiities classed and described as palatal, nor is there anything in its histoiy or its euphonic tteatment to cast doubt oa its character as such. Rules for Btrengthening and weakening processes. Among the dramatic authors, Kalidisa is incomparably the chief, and his ^akuutalft is distinctly his masterpiece. The beginnings of philosophic- al speculation are seen already in some of the later hymns of the Veda, more abundantly in the Brahmai^aa and Aran- yakas, and then especially in the Upanishads. Extensioii and abbreviatioa of conao- nant-gioups. For this last favor I have likewise to thank Prof. In some texts, part of them are written correspondingly: thna, ttivrta, toni^TS, budbniya. Thus, in derivation, even before vowels, semivowels, and nasals, reversion to gattural form Is by no means rare. Radical fi la shortened to the semblance of stem-a in ■ number rednplicated forma, sa tlffba, piba, dada, etc.: see SVl-li also in a few aoriets, aa Uivam, &khyam, etc. Before a of snfax a, final O becomea k in anlci, Qvafiko, arki, piki, vSki, fuko. has tim ant&rvati^ pregnant wUh him; and AV. It is thus identical in physical character with the Greek and Latin circumflex, and fully entitled to be called by the same name. eras and sraAs, dpta &nd dfAh: of endlngt, bhijrantam uid bbiiratA, m&naai utd m&aaAal. The Piatioakbyas do not take any notice of the case. Bnt care hag been taken to facilitate the tTan«tion from the old to the new; and the changes, it is beliered, will commend themaelves to nnqnalified.acceptance. Cases are met with in the Teda whete a final m appears to be dropped before a vowel, the flnal and initial vowels being then combined Into one. There is nothing in ita enphonio influence to mark It a* retaining any trace of gntturally articulated character. This ia not, however, its real character. Two different HlgtiB, i and r, are found in the mannscriptB, indicatiDg the nasal sound heie treated of. LEIPZIG, DRUCK UND VERLAG VON BBEITKOPF & HABTEL. To aasemble aad sift and compare it is now one of the pressing needs of Vedic study. This rule, iihlch in the cluslcal Ungaage bis eGUbllshed Itself In the form here given, ms ■ phonetic rule of unv&Tylng application, really iniolrei a bietoric satvivel. The leTenloD of b in deriretlon ia eomptntlTely taie. The only other work deserving to be mentioned along with Kalidasa's is the Hroohakatikft of ^udraka, also of questionable period, but believed to be the oldest of the extant dramas. ling V Semivowels Nasals AnoBvira AspiraUon Visarga Sibilaota bh asp. Final ndiMl n is assimilated in interofJ combination to a following sibilant, becoming ajLuSTftra. There wae some qaestian among the EUndn grammarians at to whether the final mute i> to be estimated as of surd or of sonant quality; but the great weight of authority, and the l&Taiiable practice of the manu- tcrlpts, fsTor the surd. It Is impossible to carry through a perfectly systematic arrangement of the detailed rules of euphonic combination, because the different varieties of euphonic change more or less overlap and intersect one another. The rowels i, tl and e aa dual endings, both of declen- sional and of coDJugational forms. In the White Yajm-Veda, it is separated into a woik by itself, beside the sfubhitft oi text of veises and foimulas, and is called the patapatba-Brftbrna^a Brahmana of a hundred ways. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world. Ai ex&mples of the infleotion of a-atema may be taken ^iHT kSma m. Tbeie are In European workt generally reduced to tbeir o. ug,i,.e., Google ICO-] m. An aspirate mute is changed to a non-aspiiate before another non-naeal mute or before a sibilant; it stands unaltered only before a vowel oi semivowel or nasal. Of ooQTersiona iDvolving a change of artionlate position, the moet important are those of dental aonnde to lingual, and, leas often, to palatal. Thns, {adra, giv&;a, ikKri, nadi, dSta. Laen kuni 10000; vevid laen. On the other hind, And ar of the TSib-fonn fivar i« ohtnged to before a lonint In lOToril cum In RV. The begioDuigB of the latter date &oni a period when in actual life the higher and educated characters used Sanskrit, and the lower and uneducated need the popular dialects derived from it, the Prakrits ; and their dialogue reflects this condition of things. To a cer- tain extent, there is among them the possession of common material: a fact the bearings of which are not yet fully understood. With the exoeptious above atat«d, the oollisios of BUid and soaant Bounds is avoided ia oombinationa - and, legvlacl}' and usually, by aMimilatiog the final to the following initial, ot by legiewive awimil&tion. The two vowels, however, are usually pronounced as one syllable.; lihtne laen. My manifold obligations to my own teacher, Prof. The manascrlpts and tbe editions In general make no attempt to distinguish the anal tones produced by the assimilation of m before a follov- ing eemlvovel tiom that before a Bpiracl, g. The time and the place of the cre- ation of Sanskrit are unknown; and as to its occasion, we hare only our inferences and conjectures to lely upon. Words •ignifying give atttntton, have a regard oi feeling, atpire. Leia kõige soodsam kiirlaen siit. Thus, no oarati, atao ohattaram, vldyuj jKyate; jBtwUlana. And this nee puses over into that of the dative of end or purpose, which is extremely commoa. His date has been a matter of much inquiry and controversy; it is doubtless some cen- turies later than our era. And some require the same oon* verBlon after oTiry mate save m, reading also rfpEJ ohntudrlt ftnaf oh^ol, anuffup chSradl, fuk ohucl